IEEE Communications Magazine - June 2017 - page 142

IEEE Communications Magazine • June 2017
140
0163-6804/17/$25.00 © 2017 IEEE
A
bstract
Mobile crowdsensing is a new paradigm, shar-
ing sensing data collected by mobile devices such
as smartphones and tablets. As mobile devices
are usually connected by an opportunistic net-
work for data transfer, it is hard to acknowledge
the contribution of each mobile user in network
forwarding and find a sustainable incentive mech-
anism. In this article, we propose a software
defined opportunistic network scheme for mobile
crowdsensing. We design a centralized control
structure to manage the opportunistic network
and mobile crowdsensing. By the centralized
structure, we also design an incentive mechanism
for data forwarding and collection in a software
defined opportunistic network and solve the opti-
mal decision of mobile devices and the sensing
service provider. From the extensive simulation
results, our incentive mechanism performs better
than original solutions.
I
ntroduction
In recent years, more and more mobile devices
equip sensors such as cameras, accelerometers,
and digital compasses to support various mobile
applications [1]. Meanwhile, these sensors pro-
vide rich information about the environment and
users’ activities, which are also important sourc-
es to measure phenomena of different interest.
Mobile crowdsensing is such a new paradigm,
which organizes mobile devices and collects rich-
ness information, thus providing sensing services
for different purposes [2, 3].
For mobile crowdsensing, a significant issue
is the incentive mechanism as sensing and data
forwarding brings additional energy consumption
to participants. As the final sensing information is
valuable in numerous ways, the sensing service
provider can spend part of the revenue to motivate
mobile users to provide sensing. Usually, the sens-
ing service provider can return some revenue to
mobile users who contribute valuable sensing data.
Since the cellular network consumes a large
amount of energy to transfer large sensing data,
an opportunistic network is very appropriate for
crowdsensing. In an opportunistic network, mobile
devices can transfer information, each without a
determined forwarding route, which is an efficient
solution for forwarding sensing data in mobile
crowdsensing. A difficulty is that the incentive
mechanism is ignorant of the forwarding route.
However, it is hard to measure the contribution of
mobile users who forward data in the opportunistic
network. Users will escape data forwarding without
incentives, and it is hard to maintain a sustainable
network for mobile crowdsensing.
Software defined networking (SDN) is an
important methodology for managing the oppor-
tunistic network [4]. SDN decouples the data plane
and control plane and manages the data forward-
ing through a centralized controller, which is also
able to acknowledge the data forwarding activities
of each mobile device. In this article, we propose
a software defined opportunistic network (SDON)
structure for mobile crowdsensing. An SDON pro-
vides fine-grained management of the opportunis-
tic network and records the user contributions in
data forwarding through accurate statistics.
Therefore, we present a sustainable incentive
mechanism that returns cellular network traffic
to mobile users who contribute in mobile crowd-
sensing, including data collection and forwarding.
The incentives for data forwarding can reduce the
packet loss, thus increasing energy efficiency since
users can receive reimbursements for their addi-
tional power consumption in data forwarding. We
study the payoffs of mobile users and the sensing
service provider and formulate the optimization
of the incentive mechanism as a leader/follower
Stackelberg game. We find the optimal solutions
for mobile users and the sensing service provider
by solving the convex optimization problems. To
evaluate our solution in mobile crowdsensing, we
execute extensive simulations, and the results show
our solution performs better than earlier solutions.
The main contributions of this article are sum-
marized as follows:
• We first propose an SDON structure for
the data forwarding management in crowd-
sensing. Since the SDON is a prospective
methodology, our work is the first work
that focuses on mobile crowdsensing in an
SDON.
• We then design the sustainable incentive
mechanism by returning cellular traffic to
participants, including data collection and
forwarding. It is a challenging problem that
requires a thorough understanding of mobile
crowdsensing.
• We model the interaction of the sensing ser-
vice provider and mobile users as a two-stage
Stackelberg game and analyze the game
equilibrium. A general analysis with variable
system settings is used for applicability of dif-
ferent mobile crowdsensing scenarios.
Mobile Crowdsensing in
Software Defined Opportunistic Networks
He Li, Kaoru Ota, Mianxiong Dong, and Minyi Guo
S
ustainable
I
ncentive
M
echanisms
for
M
obile
C
rowdsensing
The authors propose a
software defined oppor-
tunistic network scheme
for mobile crowdsensing.
They design a central-
ized control structure to
manage the opportunistic
network and mobile
crowdsensing. By the
centralized structure, they
also design an incentive
mechanism for data
forwarding and collection
in a software defined
opportunistic network and
solve the optimal decision
of mobile devices and the
sensing service provider.
He Li, Kaoru Ota, and Mianxiong Dong are with Muroran Insitute of Technology; Minyi Guo is with Shanghai Jiao Tong University.
Digital Object Identifier:
10.1109/MCOM.2017.1600719
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