IEEE Network - March / April 2017 - page 11

IEEE Network • March/April 2017
9
been investigated to a much lesser extent. To
this end, a new hybrid computing model named
“Foud,” which makes the fog and cloud avail-
able to V2G systems, is proposed, in which two
sub-models, permanent cloud and temporary fog,
together constitute the infrastructure of Foud. Dif-
ferent from previous proposals, fog computing
integrated into Foud is considered a sub-model of
temporary fog, owing to the dynamic of mobile
computing resources. Additionally, 5G commu-
nication technologies are utilized to cope with
the issue of the tremendous growth of accessing
vehicular terminals and produced mobile data
traffic, which is hard to couple with the current
architecture of mobile networks using the existing
communication technologies.
In this article, the proposal of Foud is first
presented, and the potential V2G services sup-
ported by Foud are addressed. Subsequently, the
effectiveness of Foud is supported by a simula-
tion. Finally, considering the high mobility of
EVs
and the dynamic of mobile computing resources,
open issues and challenges in Foud are discussed
with possible solutions.
P
roposal
of
F
oud
As shown in Fig. 2, in the context of 5G, by inte-
grating the emerging and advanced technologies
of fog computing and cloud computing, a hybrid
computing model for V2G networks named Foud
is designed.
A
rchitecture
of
F
oud
The architecture of Foud is made up of two
sub-models, permanent cloud and temporary fog.
In terms of the powerful and stationary comput-
ing and storage capacities of the conventional
cloud, permanent cloud can make the virtualized
computing, storage, and network resources avail-
able to the V2G system entities, and main-
ly provides three distinct types of services, i.e.,
software-as-a-service (SaaS), platform-as-a-service
(PaaS), and infrastructure-as-a-service (IaaS). In
temporary fog, the stationary and mobile comput-
ing resources provided by the V2G system entities
(e.g., LAGs, CAs/RAs, CCs), on-board modules
in
EV
s
and even the drivers’ devices, which are
located at the edge of V2G networks, are tem-
porarily integrated together into a fog to expand
the computing capacity. Accordingly, supporting
different computing functions (e.g., processing,
storage, networking), and integrating 5G commu-
nications, Foud could enable the authenticated
and authorized end-users in the V2G system to
access all available stationary and mobile com-
puting resources in the form of virtualization with
significantly reduced costs.
Inspired by cross-layer design, Foud organizes
the involved architecture components into three
layers: the user layer, the network layer, and the
service layer. The main characteristics and func-
tions of the three layers are described as follows.
User Layer:
The user layer is composed of var-
ious types of end users and is the lowest level of
Foud. In broad terms, the end users consist of all
the V2G system entities and the drivers that have
the demand to use the services in Foud. Different
from the other end users,
EVs and drivers have
a unique feature in their inherent high mobility.
Through communication and computing devices
or installed modules, the end users could initiate
service requests to the upper layers via service
access points (SAPs). Correspondingly, the upper
layers will respond to the service requests on
demand, and the end users subsequently receive
service responses from the upper layers through
the SAPs similarly.
FIGURE 1.
An illustration of V2G network environment.
EV
LAG
CA/RA
CC
Electric vehicle
Abbr.
Full name
Local aggregator
Certification/registration authority
Control center
Either power consumer or electricity provider
Function
The service access point of power and data communication for EVs
The trusted entity managed by independent institution
The only entity trusted by all other entities in the entire V2G network environment
V2G network domain
LAG
LAG
LAG
Wireless communication
Power transmission
Wired communication
LAG
Internet
Company
Home
Market
Parking
EV
CC
EV
EV
CA/RA
CA/RA
CA/RA
CA/RA
Supporting different computing functions and integrating 5G communications, Foud could enable the
authenticated and authorized end-users in the V2G system to access all available stationary and mobile
computing resources in the form of virtualization with significantly reduced costs.
1...,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10 12,13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,...100
Powered by FlippingBook