IEEE Network - March / April 2017 - page 12

IEEE Network • March/April 2017
10
Network Layer:
The network layer is made up
of a variety of communication devices and tech-
nologies, and is designed to implement the inter-
actions between the end users in the user layer
and the computing resources. It is also used to
enable interactions between the end users, and
the interconnection and interoperation between
the defined two sub-layers in the service layer. In
this layer, 5G communications are the favorites;
other current widely used communication tech-
nologies, e.g., 3G/4G, satellite, GPS, and so on,
are also integrated to form a heterogeneous con-
vergence network. Additionally, the technology of
self-defending networks (SDNs) can also be used
to shield the heterogeneity of the underlying com-
munication facilities [14].
Service Layer:
The service layer consists of two
sub-layers: a permanent layer supporting the con-
ventional cloud, and a dynamic layer supporting
the temporary fog. By passing the network layer,
the service layer, supported by the computing
capacities in permanent cloud and the temporary
fog, could provide various types of V2G services
for the end users located in the user layer through
SAPs.
In the permanent cloud layer, the three distinct
types of services, SaaS (e.g., application, entertain-
ment, game), PaaS (e.g., OS, database), and IaaS
(e.g., server, storage, network), could be provided
by various available stationary computing resourc-
es organized in the form of virtualization.
In the dynamic layer of the temporary fog,
under utilized by the permanent cloud, a mass
of computing resources on the edge of V2G net-
works, e.g., the stationary computing resources
provided by LAGs, CAs/RAs, CCs,
EV
s
and driv-
ers in the rest state, and the mobile computing
resources provided by
EVs and drivers in the mov-
ing state, are integrated to form the infrastructure
of fog computing. Due to EV
and driver mobil-
ity, the mobile computing resources provided
by them are temporarily connected to the fog;
accordingly, this sub-model in Foud is named the
temporary fog, which is different from the work
in the previous proposals. Additionally, because
fog computing is based on the service computing
architecture model of para-virtualization, physical
computing functionalities and services, and virtu-
alized services in the form of SaaS, PaaS and IaaS,
both could be made available to the end-users in
the user layer through SAPs.
I
nterconnection
and
I
nteroperation
B
etween
S
ub
-M
odels
As stated above, the two sub-models, permanent
cloud and temporary fog, together make up the
architecture model of Foud. The interconnection
between the two sub-models can be achieved
by a global network consisting of all computing
resources in the service layer through the intro-
duced internetworking technologies in the net-
work layer. In addition, to uniformly manage and
control the merged network in Foud, different
network techniques and protocols must be sup-
ported.
Based on the enabled interconnection, the issue
of interoperability between the two sub-models
could be addressed as well. Through the network,
protocol, interface, and security (e.g., certification
and authorization) techniques to achieve global
control for the V2G system, permanent cloud and
temporary fog could fully cooperate and interop-
erate to perform the joint implementation of V2G
services without any additional costs.
P
otential
V2G S
ervices
and
A
pplications
Making full use of the advantages of fog comput-
ing, cloud computing, and 5G communications,
Foud could facilitate the quick growth of enriched
V2G services for the following partial list of appli-
cations.
Powerful Computing and Standardized Data
Storage:
With the powerful computing capacity
in permanent cloud and the expanded computing
capacity provided by temporary fog, Foud could
provide compute-intensive services and applica-
tions, e.g., planning the shortest path between
power-thirsty
EVs and charging stations, and
optimizing the deployment of charging stations
to provide high quality services with respect to
usability, security, and low latency. Additionally, a
volume of sensed and aggregated data, e.g., traf-
fic, movement of
EVs, battery depletion state, and
geographic locations of recharging stations, could
be stored in Foud with standardized data formats.
Balanced Power Management Services and
Applications:
Power management is a major
concern in the smart grid. By utilizing the pow-
erful computing and storage capacities in Foud
FIGURE 2.
Proposed Foud model.
SAP
SAP
SAP
SAP
CC/Internet
access device
CA/RA/Internet
access device
LAG/Internet
access device
EV/GPS
device
Driver/smartphone
Router
5G 3G/4G VANET
Satellite/GPS
••••••
WSN
Communication devices
Communication technologies
Switch
••••••
Base
station
Access
point
SAP
SAP
SAP
SAP
Interconnection
Service layer
Interoperation
Permanent cloud
SaaS (application, entertainment, etc.)
PaaS (OS, database, etc.)
IaaS (server, storage, network, etc.)
Temporary cloud
SaaS (application, entertainment, etc.)
Physical computing functionalities
and services
PaaS (OS, database, etc.)
IaaS (server, storage, network, etc.)
User layer
Network layer
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