IEEE Wireless Communications - April 2017 - page 12

IEEE Wireless Communications • April 2017
10
1536-1284/17/$25.00 © 2017 IEEE
A
bstract
Electricity production and distribution is
facing two major changes. First, production
is shifting from classical energy sources such
as coal and nuclear power toward renewable
resources such as solar and wind. Second, con-
sumption in the low voltage grid is expected
to grow significantly due to the expected intro-
duction of electrical vehicles. The first step
toward more efficient operational capabilities
is to introduce an observability of the distri-
bution system and allow for leveraging the
flexibility of end connection points with man-
ageable consumption, generation, and storage
capabilities. Thanks to advanced measurement
devices, management framework, and secure
communication infrastructure developed in the
FP7 SUNSEED project, the distribution system
operator (DSO) now has full observability of
the energy flows in the medium/low voltage
grid. Furthermore, the prosumers are able to
participate pro-actively and coordinate with
the DSO and other stakeholders in the grid.
The monitoring and management functional-
ities have strong requirements for communi-
cation latency, reliability, and security. This
article presents novel solutions and analyses
of these aspects for the SUNSEED scenario,
where smart grid ICT solutions are provided
through shared cellular LTE networks.
I
ntroduction
In industrialized countries typical consumers are
expected to become electricity producers due to
the ongoing widespread deployment of distrib-
uted generation and energy storage elements,
commonly called distributed energy resources
(DER). A consumer who produces energy is
called a prosumer. In addition to the introduc-
tion of DERs, gradual replacement of conven-
tional internal combustion engine vehicles with
electrical vehicles (EVs) is expected in the near
future, causing a significant increase in the load
on the power grid. By using only convention-
al grid management systems, the electrical grid
capacity is under question. Reinforcing the grid
all the way to the user is an option, though it is
expensive, especially when other more conve-
nient and cheaper alternatives are on the hori-
zon. The shift from a mainly unidirectional power
flow toward a fully bidirectional paradigm can
be used as an advantage, allowing installation
of additional DERs within existing infrastructure.
However, this requires precise monitoring of the
distribution grid that provides reliable and accu-
rate information on its status to enable dynamic
grid management of the future [1].
While the benefits and the necessity of a
smart distribution grid are clear, the communica-
tion solution supporting it is not straightforward.
Today, distribution system operators (DSOs) are
increasingly using IEC 61850 based communica-
tions for high-level monitoring, management, and
control of high-speed LAN/optical fiber networks
[2]. However, when the scope is extended down-
ward to a low voltage infrastructure, the availabil-
ity of such high-end communication solutions is
usually not anticipated.
Within the SUNSEED project,
1
a promis-
ing approach is considered where the already
deployed cellular networks (primarily LTE) are
used to provide the smart distribution grid com-
munication infrastructure. In this article the focus
is on the security framework and network per-
formance requirements to enable the incorpora-
tion of various measurement and control devices,
which together allow for the establishment of grid
management services based on time and privacy
sensitive data.
The specific contributions of this article relate
to the smart grid services introduced in the follow-
ing section. Thereafter, we present the require-
ments, design choices, and proposed solutions
for the smart grid communication and security
architecture. Next, we consider the performance
of shared cellular LTE networks as part of a smart
grid system. Specifically, we study the achievable
latency and reliability of the LTE based smart grid
communication. Finally, we summarize our find-
ings and outline the future steps of the SUNSEED
project, namely with respect to the large scale
field trial that was deployed in the 4th quarter of
2016.
J
immy
J. N
ielsen
, H
ervé
G
anem
, L
jupco
J
orguseski
, K
emal
A
lic
, M
iha
S
molnikar
,
Z
iming
Z
hu
, N
uno
K. P
ratas
, M
ichal
G
olinski
, H
aibin
Z
hang
, U
rban
K
uhar
,
Z
hong
F
an
,
and
A
les
S
vigelj
S
ecure
R
eal
-T
ime
M
onitoring
and
M
anagement
of
S
mart
D
istribution
G
rid
U
sing
S
hared
C
ellular
N
etworks
S
mart
G
rids
Jimmy J. Nielsen and
Nuno K. Pratas are with
Aalborg University.
Hervé Ganem is with
Gemalto.
Ljupco Jorguseski,
Michal Golinski, and
Haibin Zhang are with TNO.
Kemal Alic, Miha Smolnikar,
Urban Kuhar, and Ales Svigelj
are with Jozef Stefan Institute.
Ziming Zhu and Zhong Fan
are with Toshiba Research
Europe Ltd.
1
Digital Object Identifier:
10.1109/MWC.2017.1600252
1...,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11 13,14,15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22,...132
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