IEEE Wireless Communications - April 2017 - page 84

IEEE Wireless Communications • April 2017
82
1536-1284/17/$25.00 © 2017 IEEE
Adnan Aijaz is now with
the Telecommunications
Research Laboratories, Toshi-
ba Research Europe Ltd., Bris-
tol, UK. This work was done
while he was working at the
Centre for Telecommunica-
tions Research, King’s College
London, London, UK.
Mischa Dohler, A. H. Aghva-
mi, and Vasilis Friderikos are
with King’s College London.
Magnus Frodigh is with Erics-
son Research.
1
The term Tactile Internet
had recently been coined by
Prof. Gerhard Fettweis
et al.
[1]. Whilst the term Haptic
Internet would have been a
more rigorous term in this
context, we shall use the term
accepted by the community.
A
bstract
Prior Internet designs encompassed the fixed,
mobile, and lately the “things” Internet. In a nat-
ural evolution to these, the notion of the
Tactile
Internet
is emerging, which allows one to transmit
touch and actuation in real-time. With voice and
data communications driving the designs of the
current Internets, the Tactile Internet will enable
haptic communications
, which in turn will be a
paradigm shift in how skills and labor are digitally
delivered globally. Design efforts for both the Tac-
tile Internet and the underlying haptic communi-
cations are in its infancy. The aim of this article is
thus to review some of the most stringent design
challenges, as well as propose first avenues for
specific solutions to enable the Tactile Internet
revolution.
I
ntroduction
Each Internet generation was believed to be the
last, with designs pushed to near perfection. The
first and original Internet, a virtually infinite net-
work of computers, was a paradigm changer and
went on to define the economies of the late 20th
century. However, that Internet was followed by
the
Mobile Internet
, connecting billions of smart
phones and laptops, yet again redefining entire
segments of the economy in the first decade of
the 21st century. Today, we are witnessing the
emergence of the Internet of Things (IoT), soon to
connect trillions of objects and starting to redefine
yet again various economies of this decade.
These different embodiments of the Internet
will be dwarfed by the emergence of the
Tactile
Internet
,
1
in which ultra-responsive and ultra-reli-
able network connectivity will enable it to deliver
physical haptic experiences remotely. The Tactile
Internet will add a new dimension to human-ma-
chine interaction by building real-time interactive
systems.
Currently, the traditional wired Internet and
the Mobile Internet are widely used for deliver-
ing content services such as voice telephony, text
messaging, video streams, file sharing, emails, etc.
The transition toward the IoT is creating a new
paradigm of “control” communications. Howev-
er, the Tactile Internet provides a true paradigm
shift from content-delivery networks to skillset/
labor-delivery networks, and will thereby revo-
lutionize almost every segment of society. As
discussed in [1], the Tactile Internet will enable,
among its many applications, remote monitor-
ing and surgery, wireless controlled exoskeletons,
remote education and training, remote driving,
industrial remote servicing and decommissioning,
synchronization of suppliers in the smart grid.
Because the Tactile Internet will be servicing
very critical aspects of society, it will need to be
ultra-reliable and have sufficient capacity to allow
large numbers of devices to communicate with
each other simultaneously. It will also need to
support very low end-to-end latencies, otherwise
the tactile user will experience “cyber-sickness,”
something observed with gamers and people using
flight simulators over poor networks. The Tactile
Internet will be able to interconnect with the tradi-
tional wired Internet, the mobile internet, and the
Internet of Things, thereby forming an Internet of
entirely new dimensions and capabilities.
At the very core of the design of the Tac-
tile Internet is the 1ms-challenge, i.e. achieving
a round-trip latency of 1 ms at an outage of
about 1 ms per day. Realizing the 1ms-challenge
would enable the typical latencies and reliabilities
required for real-time haptic interaction under-
pinning unrivalled mobile applications capable of
steering and controlling real and virtual objects.
Given that state-of-the-art 4G mobile/cellular net-
works have a latency in the order of 20 ms, a key
requirement for fifth generation (5G) mobile net-
works is to support a round-trip latency of 1 ms [2,
3], i.e. an order of magnitude faster than 4G.
The conventional Internet facilitates voice and
data communications, and provides the medium
for audio/visual transport. However, the Tactile
Internet will enable
haptic communications
[4],
the primary application, and provide the medi-
um for transporting touch and actuation in real-
time, i.e. the ability to exert haptic control through
the Internet, in addition to non-haptic control
and data (like video and audio). Typically, hap-
tic information is composed of two distinct types
of feedbacks:
kinesthetic
feedback (providing
A
dnan
A
ijaz
, M
ischa
D
ohler
, A. H
amid
A
ghvami
,
V
asilis
F
riderikos
,
and
M
agnus
F
rodigh
R
ealizing
the
T
actile
I
nternet
:
H
aptic
C
ommunications
over
N
ext
G
eneration
5G C
ellular
N
etworks
A
ccepted
from
O
pen
C
all
Digital Object Identifier:
10.1109/MWC.2016.1500157RP
1...,74,75,76,77,78,79,80,81,82,83 85,86,87,88,89,90,91,92,93,94,...132
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