IEEE Network - March / April 2017 - page 10

IEEE Network • March/April 2017
0890-8044/17/$25.00 © 2017 IEEE
V2G technology is considered a powerful
approach enabling renewable energy sources to
provide ancillary electrical services, and managing
and monitoring power usage in the smart grid.
However, owing to the inherent high mobility
of EVs, flexible and timely on-demand response
services against
EV mobility in the V2G system
must be provided. Promoted by the advantages
of 5G communications, e.g., supporting various
connectivity and faster transmission, fogs and
clouds are enabled to provide realistic services,
and fog computing and cloud computing assist-
ed V2G systems in future 5G mobile networks
are expected to be a new paradigm to create a
new situation for V2G services. To this end, a fog-
based and cloud-based hybrid computing model
named “Foud” applied to V2G networks in 5G
is proposed. The potential V2G network services
provided by Foud are reviewed, and open issues
and challenges for future work are also discussed
with possible solutions.
Enabling renewable energy sources to provide
ancillary electrical services through bi-directional
communication and energy flows between EVs
and the power grid, V2G as a critical network ser-
vice in the smart grid is considered to be one of
the most powerful approaches to manage and
monitor power usage [1]. As shown in Fig. 1, to
implement the power exchange and the interac-
tion of power-related data, V2G networks employ
a two-way communication infrastructure, in which
power links are deployed to achieve both bat-
tery charging of
EVs by consuming power from
the power grid, and discharging the stored power
EVs back to the power grid. Various wireless/
wired communication technologies are also inte-
grated to support data communications between
the V2G system entities (e.g.,
EVs, local aggre-
gators (LAG
), certification/registration authori-
ties (CAs/RAs), and control centers (
s)). With
such a network architecture, various V2G services
can be implemented [2–4], e.g., ancillary services,
charging/discharging enabled energy renewable
services, security and privacy related preservation
services, and so on.
EV mobility is one of the unique and
inherent characteristics of V2G systems, an
can perform random or purposeful movement
in the V2G network and may work in different
modes accordingly. When an
is connected
to a LAG serving as its default access point for
power and data communication, the
is work-
ing in home mode. Otherwise, when an
temporarily connected to a LAG managed by a
different institution, the
is working in visiting
mode [5]. Hence, along with
EV mobility, new
critical challenges for providing flexible and time-
ly on-demand response V2G services must be
addressed [6, 7].
Cloud computing as a new computing model
has been considered a challenging research and
industrial topic for many years. To achieve reli-
able, secure, and efficient V2G service responses
on-demand within the implemented distributed
architecture, integrating cloud computing with the
V2G system can improve service management
and integration levels by enabling the V2G sys-
tem entities to focus on more advanced and com-
plicated service applications, and outsource the
basic and generic service-oriented applications to
the clouds [8]. In [9], by formulating the problem
of routing service requests in a cloud environment
jointly with the analysis of power in the V2G sys-
tem, Leon-Garcia
et al
. investigate the opportuni-
ties provided by cloud computing to help V2G
systems with robustness and load balancing.
Although cloud computing as characterized
by powerful computing and storage capacities
has been identified as a promising approach that
can offer significant benefits for V2G systems,
fog computing [10], as a new paradigm that can
deliver computing services at the edge of the
cloud network and support low-latency and loca-
tion-aware services, has also been shown to be
an alternative approach to ensure the desired lev-
els of V2G services requested by moving
EVs. In
[11], based on a fog computing platform, Faruque
et al.
, present an energy management system pro-
totype for the home and micro-grid levels with
customized control-as-services.
Expectably, under the paradigm of cloud com-
puting and fog computing, with the increasing
popularity of
EVs and rich V2G services, both the
number of accessing vehicular terminals and the
volume of produced mobile data will experience
tremendous growth. However, under the current
architecture of mobile networks using the existing
communication technologies, e.g., satellite and
3G/4G, both cloud computing and fog comput-
ing may not be perfectly suitable for ensuring the
desired levels of various performance metrics to
any V2G services requested by moving
EVs. For-
tunately, with the emergence of 5G mobile net-
works, using the advantages of supporting various
connectivity and faster transmission, more realistic
services provided by various kinds of clouds and
fogs are expected to be enabled [12, 13].
However, to the best of our knowledge, opti-
mizing V2G network services by integrating both
cloud computing and fog computing into 5G has
Foud: Integrating Fog and Cloud for 5G-Enabled V2G Networks
Ming Tao, Kaoru Ota, and Mianxiong Dong
Ming Tao is with Dongguan
University of Technology.
Kaoru Ota and Mianxiong
Dong (corresponding author)
are with Muroran
Institute of Technology.
Digital Object Identifier:
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